Tuesday, February 1, 2011

Studies on Biological and Cellular Damage by Microwave & Radiofrequency Radiation

New Studies Show Laptops and Cellphones Adversely Affect Children and Fetuses

USA - Yale University
Fetal Radiofrequency Radiation Exposure From 800-1900 Mhz-Rated Cellular Telephones Affects Neurodevelopment and Behavior in Mice
Here we demonstrate that fetal exposure to 800–1900 Mhz-rated radiofrequency radiation from cellular telephones leads to behavioral and neurophysiological alterations that persist into adulthood...The significant trend between the groups treated for 0, 9, 15, and 24 hours/day demonstrates that the effects are directly proportional to usage time... 

Dept of Pediatrics, Obstetrics and Reproduction Medicine, University of Siena.
ASL 7 (Local Health Agency), Prevention Dept Physical Agents Laboratory, Siena.
CNR (Italian Research Council), Institute of Applied Physics (IFAC), Florence, Italy.
Exposure to Electromagnetic Fields From Laptop Use of “Laptop” Computers

Exposure to Electromagnetic Fields From Laptop Use of “Laptop” Computers

In the LTCs analyzed, EMF values (range 1.8–6 μT) are within International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation (NIR) Protection (ICNIRP) guidelines, but are considerably higher than the values recommended by 2 recent guidelines for computer monitors magnetic field emissions, MPR II (Swedish Board for Technical Accreditation)
and TCO (Swedish Confederation of Professional Employees), and those considered risky for tumor development... the power supply induces strong intracorporal electric current densities in the fetus and in the adult subject, which are respectively 182–263% and 71–483% higher than ICNIRP 98 basic restriction recommended to prevent adverse health effects.

Russian National Committee on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection 
Psychophysiological Indicators for Child Users of Mobile Communication. Message 1: Present State of the Problem
Message 2: Results of Four-year Monitoring

"It has been shown that the children’s organism is more sensitive to this kind of exposure than the adult one. We have identified the following major trends of the psychophysiological indicators for child users of mobile communication: an increased number of phonemic perception disorders, abatement of efficiency, reduced indicators for the arbitrary and semantic memory, and increased fatigue. A steady decline of the parameters from high values to bottom standards has been found."

University of Athens
Brain proteome response following whole body exposure of mice to mobile phone or wireless DECT base radiation (* Note DECT cordless phone bases emits the SAME 2.4 GHz frequency as Wi-Fi routers and devices)
"The observed protein expression changes may be related to brain plasticity alterations, indicative of oxidative stress in the nervous system or involved in apoptosis and might potentially explain human health hazards reported so far, such as headaches, sleep disturbance, fatigue, memory deficits, and brain tumor long-term induction under similar exposure conditions."
Summary: http://electromagnetichealth.org/electromagnetic-health-blog/mice-proteome/

Wireless Radiation Damages Fertility

Some Peer-reviewed Studies on the Biological Effects from 2.45Ghz (Wi-Fi range) Radiofrequency

Use Of Laptop Computers Connected To Internet Through Wi-Fi Decreases
Human Sperm Motility And Increases Sperm DNA Fragmentation
Ex vivo exposure of human spermatozoa to a wireless internet-connected laptop decreased motility and induced DNA fragmentation by a nonthermal effect.

Effects Of Wi-Fi Signals On The P300 Component Of Event-Related Potentials During An Auditory Hayling Task
To the best of our knowledge, this is the first attempt to investigate the immediate effects of Wi-Fi signals upon brain operation, specifically on the P300 ERP component... As far as the different Hayling tasks are concerned, results show significantly decreased amplitude values for the response inhibition condition in a large area of the brain.”

Wi-Fi Electromagnetic Fields Exert Gender Related Alterations On EEG
It is concluded that Wi-Fi may influence normal physiology through changes in gender related cortical excitability as it is reflected by the alpha and beta EEG frequencies.

Mutagenic response of 2.45 GHz radiation exposure on rat brain.
"The authors conclude that the chronic exposure to 2.45 GHz microwaves may cause a significant damage to the brain, which may be an indication of possible tumour promotion."

Single strand DNA breaks in rat brain cells exposed to microwave radiation.
"The data showed that the chronic exposure to 2.45 and 16.5 GHz under these experimental conditions caused a statistically significant increase in DNA single-strand breaks (increase in the length of DNA migration) in brain cells of rats."

Some behavioral effects of short-term exposure of rats to 2.45 GHz microwave radiation.
"Microwave-exposed animals exhibited less activity than sham-exposed animals... Both the locomotor activity and acoustic startle data demonstrate that, under the conditions of this experiment, microwave exposure may alter responsiveness of rats to novel environmental conditions or stimuli."

Erythropoietic changes in rats after 2.45 GHz nonthermal irradiation.
"In the applied experimental condition, RF/MW radiation might cause disturbance in red cell maturation and proliferation, and induce micronucleus formation in erythropoietic cells."

Genotoxic effects of low 2.45 GHz microwave radiation exposures on Sprague Dawley rats.
"We conclude that low SAR 2.45 GHz MW radiation exposures can induce DNA single strand breaks and the direct genome analysis of DNA of various tissues demonstrated potential for genotoxicity."

Effects of exposure to 2.45 GHZ microwave radiation on male rat reproductive system.
"Conclusion: MW radiation exposures caused reduction in sperm counts and motility and increased the proportion of abnormal sperm cells and induced reduction in sperm count and motility while increasing the proportion of abnormal sperm cells."

Testicular apoptosis and histopathological changes induced by a 2.45 GHz electromagnetic field.
"Electromagnetic field affects spermatogenesis and causes to apoptosis due to the heat and other stress-related events in testis tissue."

Effects of 2.45 GHz microwaves on meiotic chromosomes of male CBA/CAY mice.
"The findings are interpreted to indicate interference with normal spermatogenesis during the exposure period."

Effects of microwave at 2.45 GHz radiations on reproductive system of male rats.
"Chronic exposure to these radiations produced formation of apoptotic cells in testis. In addition, a significant decrease in the levels of GPx, and SOD activities as well as an increase in CAT activity was observed in the exposed group. These results indicate that a low level exposure of microwave radiations exerts a negative impact on male reproductive system function."

Laptop expositions affect motility and induce DNA fragmentation in human spermatozoa in vitro by a nonthermal effect: a preliminary report.
"We have demonstrated that exposure to laptops 
decrease progressive motility and induce DNA fragmentation in human spermatozoa in vitro by a non-thermal effect. We speculate that keeping the laptops (WiFi mode) on the lap near the testes may result in decreased male fertility."

Provocation study using heart rate variability shows microwave radiation from DECT phone (2.45 Ghz) affects autonomic nervous system.
M. Havas, J. Marrongelle, B. Pollner, E. Kelley, C.R.G. Rees, L. Tully
European Journal of Oncology Library Vol. 5, 273-300
"This is the first study that documents immediate and dramatic changes in both Heart Rate (HR) and HR variability (HRV) associated with MW exposure at levels well below (0.5%) federal guidelines in Canada and the United States (1000 microW/cm2)."

DNA Strand Breaks in Rat Brain Cells Exposed to Low level Microwave Radiation (2.4 GHz)- Environmental Sciences

Some Studies on Biological Effects from Cell Phone Towers (pulsed Microwave Radiation similar to Wi-Fi)

Mobile Phone Mast Effects on Common Frog (Rana temporaria) Tadpoles: The City Turned into a Laboratory
In the exposed group, low coordination of movements, an asynchronous growth, resulting in both big and small tadpoles, and a high mortality (90%) was observed. Regarding the control group (¼ 70) under the
same conditions but inside a Faraday cage, the coordination of movements was normal, the development was synchronous, and a mortality of 4.2% was obtained.”

Analyzing The Health Impacts Of Modern Telecommunications Microwaves
The present set of experiments (a more detailed description can be found in Panagopoulos et al. 2010) showed that, the bioactivity of GSM radiation in regards to short-term exposures is evident for radiation intensities down to 1 μW/cm2. This value of radiation intensity is encountered at about 1 m distance from a cell-phone or about 100 m distance from a corresponding base station antenna... It is possible for long-term exposure durations (weeks-months-years) that the effect would be evident at even longer distances/smaller intensities.”

The bioactivity “windows” found in our experiments, could possibly correlate with recent results of another experimental group reporting that GSM radiation caused increased permeability of the blood-brain barrier in rat nerve cells and the strongest effect was produced by the lowest SAR values which correspond to the weakest radiation intensity, (Eberhardt et al 2008).”

The effect of cell death induction in the developing eggs of the exposed female insects, just like the corresponding effect on the reproductive capacity... evident for distances up to 100 cm (radiation intensities down to 1 μW/cm2).”

Neurobehavioral effects among inhabitants around mobile phone base stations. Neurotoxicology. 28(2):434-40 Abdel-Rassoul G, El-Fateh OA, Salem MA, Michael A, Farahat F, El-Batanouny M, Salem E (March 2007).
"Inhabitants living nearby mobile phone base stations are at risk for developing neuropsychiatric problems and some changes in the performance of neurobehavioral functions either by facilitation or inhibition. So, revision of standard guidelines for public exposure to RER from mobile phone base station antennas and using of NBTB (neurobehavioral test battery) for regular assessment and early detection of biological effects among inhabitants around the stations are recommended."

GSM base station electromagnetic radiation and oxidative stress in rats.
Electromagn Biol Med. ;25(3):177-88Yurekli AI, Ozkan M, Kalkan T, Saybasili H, Tuncel H, Atukeren P, Gumustas K, Seker S (2006).
"When EM fields at a power density of 3.67 W/m2 (specific absorption rate = 11.3 mW/kg), which is well below current exposure limits, were applied, MDA (malondialdehyde - a marker for oxidative stress) level was found to increase and GSH (reduced glutathione, a major antioxidant) concentration was found to decrease significantly (p < 0.0001). Additionally, there was a less significant (p = 0.0190) increase in SOD (superoxide dismutase) activity (cell-repair) under EM exposure."

Risk Evaluation of Potential Environmental Hazards From Low Frequency Electromagnetic Field Exposure Using Sensitive in vitro Methods. EU Programme.
"Quality of Life and Management of Living Resources" - [View Foreword and Download Report]
"Genotoxic effects and a modified expression of numerous genes and proteins after EMF exposure could be demonstrated with great certainty... Since all these observations were made in in vitro studies, the results obtained neither preclude nor confirm a health risk due to EMF exposure, but they speak in favour of such a possibility."

Investigation on the health of people living near mobile telephone relay stations: I/Incidence according to distance and sex.
Pathol Biol (Paris). 50(6):369-73Santini R, Santini P, Danze JM, Le Ruz P, Seigne M (July 2002).
"Women significantly more often than men (p < 0.05) complained of headache, nausea, loss of appetite, sleep disturbance, depression, discomfort and visual perturbations. This first study on symptoms experienced by people living in vicinity of base stations shows that, in view of radio protection, minimal distance of people from cellular phone base stations should not be < 300 m."

Possible Effects of Electromagnetic Fields from Phone Masts on a Population of White Stork (Ciconia ciconia).
Balmori Alfonso (2005).  Electromagnetic Biology and Medicine, 24: 109-119
"Total productivity (number of young per couple, including nests with 0 chicks) for nests within 200m of the antenna was 0.86 (0.7 - 1.02), whereas productivity for nests further than 300m away was 1.6 (1.46- 1.74). Both were statistically significant, with a p value of 0.001. A large part of the difference here appears to be due to the likelihood of the couples in the nests near the mast (cell tower) not having any chicks: 40% of those within 200m had no chicks, whereas in the nests greater than 300m away only 3.3% did not have chicks! Odd behaviour was also noted in the storks, happening much more frequently the closer the nests were to the masts."

Increased incidence of cancer near a cell-phone transmitter station.Wolf R, Wolf D (April 2004). International Journal of Cancer Prevention Vol1, No2  - [Download Report]
"The measured level of RF radiation (power density) in the area was low; far below the current guidelines based on the thermal effects of RF exposure. We suggest, therefore, that the current guidelines be re-evaluated. The enormous short latency period; less than 2 years, indicates that if there is a real causal association between RF radiation emitted from the cell-phone base station and the cancer cases (which we strongly believe there is), then the RF radiation should have a very strong promoting effect on cancer at very low radiation!... Such unusual appearances of cancer cases due to one accused factor on two completely different occasions is alarming."

The Influence of Being Physically Near to a Cell Phone Transmission Mast on the Incidence of Cancer. 
Horst Eger, Klaus Uwe Hagen, Birgitt Lucas, Peter Vogel, Helmut Voit (April 2004). Umwelt Medizin Gesellschaft 17
"... the risk of developing cancer for those living within 400 metres of the mast (cell phone tower) in comparison to those living outside this area, was three times as high" and “the patients fell ill at least 8 years earlier.”

The Microwave Syndrome - Further aspects of a Spanish Study.
Oberfeld Gerd, Navarro A. Enrique, Portoles Manuel, Maestu Ceferino, Gomez-Perretta Claudio (August 2004).  Conference Proceedings.
"All models showed statistical significant associations between the measured electric field (~ 400 MHz – 3 GHz) and 13 out of 16 health related symptoms. The strongest five associations found are depressive tendency, fatigue, sleeping disorder, difficulty in concentration and cardiovascular problems. The symptoms associated are in line with the symptoms reported in the literature as “Microwave Syndrom... Based on the data of this study the advice would be to strive for levels not higher than 0.02 V/m for the sum total, which is equal to a power density of 0.0001 μW/cm²...”.

Mobile Telecommunications and Health
Review of the Current Scientific Research in view of Precautionary Health Protection (2000)
by ECOLOG-Institut and Commissioned by T‐Mobil Germany (DeTeMobil Deutsche Telekom MobilNet GmbH)
"This review of over 220 peer-reviewed and published papers found strong indications for the cancer-initiating and cancer-promoting ... genotoxic effects of these fields, like single and double stranded DNA breaks and damage to chromosomes. The findings that high frequency electromagnetic fields influence cell transformation, cell growth promotion and cell communication also point on a carcinogenic potential of the fields used for mobile telephony. The study also found teratogenic effects (birth deformities) and loss of fertility... Moreover, disruptions of other cellular processes, like the synthesis of proteins and the control of cell functions by enzymes, have been demonstrated... effects on the central nervous system, which reach from neuro-chemical effects to modifications of the brain potentials and impairments of certain brain functions. Loss of memory and cognitive function...Possible risks for the brain also arise from an increased permeability of the blood-brain barrier to potentially harmful substances, observed in several experiments on animals exposed to mobile telephone fields.
The ECOLOG report also found indications for disruptions of the endocrine and the immune system...stress reactions... increased production of stress hormones...reduction of the concentration of the hormone melatonin.... Melatonin has a central control function for the hormone system and the diurnal biological rhythms and it is able to retard the development of certain tumours. A common observation in many of the studies was the importance of pulse modulation. Pulse modulated fields seemed to have a stronger effect than continuous fields and that in some cases, it was the pulse of a certain frequency which triggered the reaction..."

Health Effects in the vicinity of Radio/TV towers and mobile phone base stations
EMR exposes everyone and causes significant elevation of cancer rates across many body organs, with no safe threshold. This is because of the combination of the DNA damaging biological mechanism of individual cells and the reduction of melatonin through a very sensitive brain interaction resonant process, reducing the cell damage repair rate and increasing the free radical damage rate.” http://www.neilcherry.com/documents/90_r2_EMR_Living_Near_Broadcast_Towers_Health.pdf

Symptoms experienced by people in vicinity of base stations: II/ Incidences of age, duration of exposure, location of subjects in relation to the antennas and other electromagnetic factors.
Santini R, Santini P, Danze JM, Le Ruz P, Seigne M (September 2003). . Pathol Biol (Paris). 51(7):412-5
"Our results show significant increase (p < 0.05) in relation with age of subjects (elder subjects are more sensitive) and also, that the facing location is the worst position for some symptoms studied, especially for distances till 100 m from base stations."

Psychophysiological Indicators for Child Users of Mobile Communication. Message 1: Present State of the Problem
Message 2: Results of Four-year Monitoring
N. I. Khorseva, Yu. G. Grigoriev, N. V. Gorbunova
"It has been shown that the children’s organism is more sensitive to this kind of exposure than the adult one. We have identified the following major trends of the psychophysiological indicators for child users of mobile communication: an increased number of phonemic perception disorders, abatement of efficiency, reduced indicators for the arbitrary and semantic memory, an increased fatigue. A steady decline of the parameters from high values to bottom standards has been found."

AUVA REPORT: Nonthermal Effects Confirmed; Exposure Limits Challenged; Precaution Demanded.
The Austrian Social Insurance for Occupational Risk (Allgemeine Unfallversicherungsanstalt) commissioned the Vienna Medical University to carry out its own research project in 2009
All across Europe the debate on exposure limits has flared up; insurance companies do not insure cell phone providers because of the incalculable health risks...the results of the report confirm long-known health risks associated with cell phone technologies... These recommendations are especially important for children. Dear parents, talk with your children about them!” This is now about the conflict between commercial interests of an industry supported by the government and the protection of public health. The BUND warns: “The ubiquitous exposure to this unnatural type of radiation at unprecedented levels of power density harms human health. Short-term and long-term health impairments are preprogrammed and will especially manifest in the next generation if politically responsible actions are not taken immediately... Impacts on the Brain...EEG changes...already set in during the first five minutes of exposure and remained unchanged for over 50 minutes thereafter... exposure causes a notable change in protein synthesis profiles... At a SAR of 2 W/kg, the demonstrated effects are reproducible and statistically highly significant, but they start to show at SAR levels as low as 0.1 W/kg ...the protein synthesis is measurable 4 hours after the exposure starts... The increased rate of synthesis returns to normal levels within 2 hours of when exposure stops... It appears that cells do notice that some proteins lose their function and that this loss of function, therefore, must be compensated for by the synthesis of new proteins... In addition, electromagnetic exposures provoke the formation of the free radical nitric oxide, resulting in an increased rate of DNA damage... such a break is a genetic disaster for the cell because it can hardly be reconciled with the survival of the cell. The cell therefore, tries to make repairs. When doing repairs, the cell indeed survives, but at the price of errors, so-called mutations, creeping in. And these mutations are lasting changes, which, in turn, also bear the risk of cancer... One of the observations showed that, among the different cells, those respond particularly strongly, which are metabolically active. This cell property is especially pronounced in growing tissues that is, in children and youth. Consequently, these population groups would be more susceptible than average to the described effects.”
The ICNIRP (standard which Health Canada follows) concedes that exposure limits only protect from “short-term, acute health impacts caused by increased temperatures in tissue and that nonthermal biological effects are not taken into account.

Electromagnetic Hypersensitivity: Evidence For A Novel Neurological Syndrome
The subject demonstrated statistically reliable somatic reactions in response to exposure to subliminal EMFs under conditions that reasonably excluded a
causative role for psychological processes. Conclusion: EMF hypersensitivity can occur as bona fide environmentally-inducible neurological syndrome.

Dr. David McKeown Medical Officer of Health to Toronto Board of Health (2007)
Subject: Prudent Avoidance Policy on Siting Telecommunication Towers and Antennas
The Board of Health should encourage Health Canada to review current standards and set public exposure limits for RFs under Safety Code 6 so as to be 100 times more protective.”

Environmental Pollution on Microwave Radiation - A Potential Threat to Human Health
1973 Canadian Research Report
"In view of the expected proliferation of MW devices in many different applications, a substantial 
increase in MW background activity is feared that may endanger human health. On this basis strict control of the use of these devices must be introduced while present safety standards are revised and extensive research is conducted into long term effects of exposure to low intensity MW radiation. In particular, a study of possible accumulative effects of MW radiation (directly or indirectly) through sensitization must be conducted . "

Declassified U.S. Navy Report on the Biological Effects of Microwave Radiation
This 1971 report referenced more than 2300 research articles listing more than 120 illnesses caused by radio frequency and microwave radiation including 
damage to the thyroid, blood, reproductive organs, heart and brain in addition to cell mutations.

Most cancer in firefighters is due to radio-frequency radiation exposure not inhaled carcinogens 

Biological effects from electromagnetic field exposure and public exposure standards.
“Health endpoints reported to be associated with ELF and/or RF include 
childhood leukaemiabrain tumoursgenotoxic effectsneurological effects and neurodegenerative diseases, immune system deregulation, allergic and inflammatory responses, breast cancermiscarriage and some cardiovascular effects.”http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18242044
Magnetic-field-induced DNA strand breaks in brain cells of the rat.
“Acute magnetic field exposure increased 
apoptosis and necrosis of brain cells in the rat.”http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1241963/

Single- and double-strand DNA breaks in rat brain cells after acute exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation.
“An increase in 
both types of DNA strand breaks was observed after exposure to either the pulsed or continuous-wave radiation”http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8627134
Blood-brain barrier permeability and nerve cell damage in rat brain 14 and 28 days after exposure to microwaves from GSM mobile phones.
“Albumin extravazation and also its uptake into neurons was seen to be enhanced after 14 d (Kruskal Wallis test: p = 0.02 and 0.002, respectively)... The occurrence of dark neurons in the rat brains... was enhanced later, after 28 d (p = 0.02). Furthermore, in the 28-d brain samples, 
neuronal albumin uptake was significantly correlated to occurrence of damaged neurons (Spearman r = 0.41; p < 0.01).”http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18821198
Nerve cell damage in mammalian brain after exposure to microwaves from GSM mobile phones.
“We found highly 
significant (p< 0.002) evidence for neuronal damage in the cortex, hippocampus, and basal ganglia in the brains of exposed rats.”http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1241519/?tool=pubmed
Increased blood-brain barrier permeability in mammalian brain 7 days after exposure to the radiation from a GSM-900 mobile phone.
“The present findings are in agreement with our earlier studies where we have seen 
increased BBB permeability immediately and 14 days after exposure.”http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19345073

Non-thermal DNA breakage by mobile-phone radiation (1800 MHz) in human fibroblasts and in transformed GFSH-R17 rat granulosa cells in vitro Mutation Research/Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis
Volume 583, Issue 2, 6 June 2005, Pages 178-183
“we conclude that the induced 
DNA damage cannot be based on thermal effects.”http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15869902

Electromagnetic fields stress living cells
Martin Blank, Reba Goodman,
Department of Physiology, Columbia University, New York, NY, USA

“While low energy EMF interacts with DNA to induce the stress response, increasing EMF energy in the RF range can lead to breaks in DNA strands. It is clear that in order to protect living cells, 
EMF safety limits must be changed from the current thermal standard, based on energy, to one based on biological responses that occur long before the threshold for thermal changes.”http://www.pathophysiologyjournal.com/article/S0928-4680%2809%2900006-6/abstract

Evidence that Electromagnetic Radiation is Genotoxic: The implications for the epidemiology of cancer and cardiac, neurological and reproductive effects.
Neil Cherry, Environmental Health, Lincoln University, New Zealand

“Many studies, from independent laboratories, have shown that ELF, RF/MW and cell phone radiation, 
significantly increases chromosome aberrations in exposed cells, including cells taken from human beings who have been exposed to EMR in occupational situations. Even at very low intensity radar exposures that were experienced at the U.S. Embassy in Moscow, significant increases in chromosome damage was measured from human blood samples. This evidence shows conclusively that across the EMR spectrum, EMR is genotoxic. Hence it is carcinogenic and teratogenic.”http://www.neilcherry.com/documents.php#rf
Public Health Implications of Wireless Technologies
Existing safety standards are obsolete because they are based solely on thermal effects from acute exposures. The rapidly expanding development of new wireless technologies and the long latency for the development of such serious diseases as brain cancers means that failure to take immediate action to reduce risks may result in an epidemic of potentially fatal diseases in the future.”http://www.pathophysiologyjournal.com/article/S0928-4680(09)00017-0/abstract

Genotoxic Effects of Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Fields
“Taking altogether there is ample evidence that RF-EMF can 
alter the genetic material of exposed cells in vivo and in vitro and in more than one way.”http://www.pathophysiologyjournal.com/article/S0928-4680(09)00016-9/abstract

Cognitive impairment in rats after long-term exposure to GSM-900 mobile phone radiation.
“Our results suggest significantly 
reduced memory functions in rats after GSM microwave exposure (P = 0.02).”http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18044737

Dr. Sheela V. Basrur, Medical Officer of Health to Toronto Board of HealthSubject: Health Effects of Wireless Telephone Transmission Towers
“Given the degree of uncertainty as to whether exposure levels below those permitted by Safety Code 6 could result in adverse health effects, Toronto Public Health supports the implementation of a prudent avoidance policy. Such a policy encourages the adoption of individual or societal actions to avoid unnecessary exposures to radio frequencies that entail little or no cost.” http://www.toronto.ca/health/hphe/pdf/rf_boh_final.pdf

Cellular phone use and risk of benign and malignant tumours.
American Journal of Epidemiology 167(4), 457-467, 2008.
"Based on the largest number of benign PGT patients reported to date, our results suggest an association between cellular phone use and PGTs (parotid gland tumors)."

Mobile phone use and risk of tumors: a meta analysis.
Journal of Clinical Oncology 27(33), 5565-5572, 2009. 
"The current study found that there is possible evidence linking mobile phone use to an increased risk of tumors from a meta-analysis of low-biased case-control studies."

Cardiovascular risk under electromagnetic exposure.
"The authors concluded that the electromagnetic field exposure of medical staff in physiotherapy could be associated with 
adverse effects on the cardiovascular system."http://www.emf-portal.de/viewer.php?aid=15833&sid=6f336c7ba112baee42d94bd8c34170ac&sform=6&pag_idx=80&l=e

Radiofrequency-induced carcinogenesis: cellular calcium homeostasis changes as a triggering factor.
"The findings suggest that in exposed animals, 
carcinogenesis may be induced earlier and with different pathological forms than in control mice."http://www.emf-portal.de/viewer.php?aid=12248&sid=f980ebaeb7b9ce8a9a0c808d6d414550&sform=6&pag_idx=30&l=e

Non-thermal activation of the hsp27/p38MAPK stress pathway by mobile phone radiation in human endothelial cells: Molecular mechanism for cancer- and blood-brain barrier-related effects.
"The authors conclude that low energy microwave irradiation may be harmful as it is sufficient to 
alter the levels of thyroid hormones as well as the emotional reactivity of rats."http://www.emf-portal.de/viewer.php?aid=16182&sid=066e46c73a86b30f2c00fed54467f5f4&sform=6&pag_idx=0&l=e

The Effects of Microwave emitted by Cellular Phones on Ovarian Follicles in Rats.
The number of pups per delivery was significantly decreased in the exposure group compared to the control group. The data showed that in the pups of the exposed group, the number of follicles was significantly lower than that in the control group. The decreased number of follicles in pups exposed to mobile phone microwaves suggest that intrauterine exposure has toxic effects on ovaries.

Effects of mobile phone radiation on serum testosterone in Wistar albino rats.
"The data showed that exposure to mobile phones for 60 minutes/day for the total period of 3 months significantly 
decreased the serum testosterone level in rats compared to the control group. Testosterone is a primary male gender hormone and any change in the normal levels may be devastating for reproductive and general health."http://www.emf-portal.de/viewer.php?aid=18557&sid=066e46c73a86b30f2c00fed54467f5f4&sform=6&pag_idx=0&l=e

Increase of brain ammonia after microwave irradiation and its mechanism.
ammonia concentration was found about 5 times higher in animals exposed to 0.4 s than in non or longer exposed animals."http://www.emf-portal.de/viewer.php?aid=4971&sid=032f7707821b85619c2ea16bf9441d34&sform=6&pag_idx=60&l=e

RF radiation-induced changes in the prenatal development of mice.
By: Magras IN, Xenos TD Published in: Bioelectromagnetics 1997; 18 (6): 455 - 461 
progressive decrease in the number of newborns per dam was found, which ended in irreversible infertility."

Melanoma incidence and frequency modulation (FM) broadcasting
"The authors concluded that melanoma is associated with exposure to FM broadcasting."
Hallberg Ö, Johansson O, Arch Environ Health 2002; 57: 32‐40

Cancer trends during the 20th century
Breast, bladder, prostate, lung, colon and cutaneous melanoma cancers are all associated with each other. Figures 15-17 and ref. 11 relate melanoma to radio-frequency EMF."
"...closing down of public radio transmitters seems to have a strong effect in reducing cancer mortality..."
Hallberg Ö, Johansson O, J Aust Coll Nutr & Env Med 2002; 21: 3‐8 
Malignant melanoma of the skin – not a sunshine story!
"We conclude that 
continuous disturbance of cell repair mechanisms by body-resonant electromagnetic fields seems to amplify the carcinogenic effects resulting from cell damage caused e.g. by UV-radiation."
Hallberg Ö, Johansson O, Med Sci Monit 2004; 10: CR336‐340

Electro hypersensitivity: Observations in the human skin of a physical impairment
"In summary, it is evident from our preliminary data that various 
biological alterations are present in the electrohypersensitive persons claiming to suffer from exposure of electromagnetic fields."
Johansson O, Symposium on ‘Electrical Sensitivity in Human Beings’, Royal Society of Medicine, London, U.K., September 11, 2004 (abstr.)
Does GSM 1800 MHz affect the public health in Sweden?
"The data shows that the health of the whole Swedish population is threatened."
"The responsible authorities must seriously consider possible health implications from the GSM 1800 MHz system"
Hallberg Ö, Johansson O, , In: Proceedings of the 3rd International Workshop ‘Biological Effects of EMFs’, Kos, Greece, October 4‐8, 2004 Johansson O, ‘Electro hypersensitivity: Observations in the human skin of a physical impairment’, WHO Workshop on ‘Electrical Hypersensitivity’, Prague, Czech Republic, October 25‐27, 2004 (abstr.) 
1997 – A curious year in Sweden
Hallberg Ö, Johansson O,, Eur J Cancer Prev 2004; 13: 535‐538
"We note that 1997 was a very curious year in that a large number of health-reltaed measures suddenly started to indicate a 
fast degradation in the health of the Swedish population. Several health characteristics and diseases seem to correlate with the Swedish introduction of the GSM 1800MHz system both in time and place."

Long‐term sickness and mobile phone use
"...strong similarity between increased mobile phone use and health degradation in Sweden. Other investigations have shown a 
strong correlation between mobile system transmitter coverage and health including recovery times from accidents and surgery operations. All in all we can only conclude that it is now time to reconsider the benefit of handheld radiating devices, nowadays being marketed also towards innocent children. ... health care expenses likely to be caused by mobile phone and transmitter radiation."
Hallberg Ö, Johansson O,  J Aust Coll Nutr & Env Med, 2004; 23: 11‐12 

Mobile handset output power and health
"we show that there is a very strong correlation between health degradation and weak GSM coverage, while there is no such relation noticed for the time period 1981–1991 when no handset power regulation was applied."
Hallberg Ö, Johansson O, Electromag Biol Med 2004; 23: 229‐239

FM broadcasting exposure time and malignant melanoma incidence
"Malignant melanoma is an example of a disease that was very rare before 1955 but has increased dramatically over the past 50 years. This increase may be due to an environmental agent which 
interferes with cell repair mechanisms normally active during sleep. We have shown that an environmental change of this type might be the exposure of a population to whole-body resonant EMFs via FM broadcasting transmitters. In Sweden FM broadcasting started in 1955 and had increased considerably by 1957."
Hallberg Ö, Johansson O, , Electromag Biol Med 2005; 24: 1‐8
Alzheimer mortality – why does it increase so fast in sparsely populated areas?
"The two factors having the strongest correlation with decreased health quality were the estimated average power output from mobile phones (positive correlation) and the reported coverage from the global system for mobile communication base stations (negative correlation) in each county.
Hallberg Ö, Johansson O, Europ Biol Bioelectromag 2005, in press
Disturbance of the immune system by electromagnetic fields
- A potentially underlying cause for cellular damage and tissue repair reduction which could lead to disease and impairment "A number of papers dealing with the effects of modern, man-made electromagnetic fields (EMFs) on the immune system are summarized in the present review. EMFs disturb immune function through stimulation of various allergic and inflammatory responses, as well as effects on tissue repair processes. Such disturbances increase the risks for various diseases, including cancer. These and the EMF effects on other biological processes (e.g. DNA damage, neurological effects, etc.) are now widely reported to occur at exposure levels significantly below most current national and international safety limits. Obviously, biologically based exposure standards are needed to prevent disruption of normal body processes and potential adverse health effects of chronic exposure." http://www.emrnetwork.org/pdfs/PATPHY_621.pdf
Non-thermal effects in the microwave induced unfolding of proteins observed by chaperone binding.
"We show that microwaves cause a significantly higher degree of unfolding than conventional thermal stress for protein solutions heated to the same maximum temperature."
Light and electron microscopic study of the thyroid gland in rats exposed to power-frequency electromagnetic fields
"the results of this study show the stimulative effect of power-frequency EMF on 
thyroid gland at both the light microscope and the ultrastructural level."http://jeb.biologists.org/cgi/reprint/209/17/3322.pdf
Wireless Devices, Standards, and Microwave Radiation in the Education Environment  
Until we know beyond the shadow of a doubt that this technology can be safely used by children, we are behaving like irresponsible adults by treating our children as guinea pigs in this uncontrolled experiment."
Cell Membrane and Electromagnetic Fields
"Electromagnetic field can affect the protein distribution pattern and the proliferation rate of different kind of cells.  
Protein clusterization may induce a changement in cell permeability control. The evidence of Biological effects are so strong that the icnirp guidelines are to be modified to lower epidemiological limits. Public exposure Limit - To avoid the demonstrated health effects the public,  exposure limit should be 0.02 mW/cm2."http://www.salzburg.gv.at/Proceedings_%2813%29_Marinelli.pdf

Rationale for Setting EMF Exposure Standards
(Based on large-scale human studies of 1312 workers and 1859 students in China)
"In summary, the results showed that chronic exposure to EMFs are associated with a variety of non-specific symptoms, including increased frequency of 
neuroses, liability of vegetation nervous system, and slight changes in peripheral blood, lens, and non-specific immune function... The health hazard develops after overpassing of the adaptation/defense processes of the subjects. However, the existence of health hazardous effects of RF (radiofrequency) and MW (microwave) could not be denied."http://www.salzburg.gv.at/Proceedings_%2820%29_Chiang.pdf
Comparison of EMF standard and EMF research in China
CAO Zhaojin - National Institute for Environmental Health and Related Product Safety, China 2006
"Epidemiological studies showed that low intensity RF exposure (lower than EMF standard, <10μW/cm2) [
Note:  Current Canadian standard is 1000μW/cm2!] might have effects on human neurobehavior, neurasthenia, cataract, and sperm development; low intensity RF might result in abnormal of ECG, EEG, and rCBF, and low intensity RF might increase the rate of mutation and micro nuclei in lymphocytes.
Animal studies showed that RF might have effects on animal 
ability of study, memory and male reproduction; RF might disturb the elimination ability of free radicals and the regulating ability of brain neurotransmitters. In vitro studies found that RF might down regulate the cytochrome oxidase activity of neurons and might damage the retention of brain, it implies that RF might have some relation with Alzheimer’s dementia."http://www.icems.eu/docs/Cao.pdf 
Electromagnetic Fields produced by Incubators influence Heart Rate Variability in Newborns
C V Bellieni, M Acampa, M Maffei, S Maffei, S Perrone, I Pinto, N Stacchini, G Buonocore
"EMFs produced by incubators influence newborns’ HRV, showing an influence on their autonomous nervous system... A reduced HRV is a powerful and independent predictor of adverse prognosis in patients with heart disease and in the general population,  and the proarrhythmic role exerted by transient or persistent alterations in sympathetic and vagal control mechanisms is well known. Specifically, sympathetic hyperactivity favours the onset of lifethreatening cardiac arrhythmias... newborns should be one case in which a policy of prudent avoidance of an EMF is warranted, perhaps because no study has so far excluded the possibility of negative consequences of their chronic exposition to a high EMF in incubators." http://www.avaate.org/IMG/pdf/incuvadorafn132738.pdf
Effects of Cell Phone Radiofrequency Signal Exposure on Brain Glucose Metabolism
"In healthy participants and compared with no exposure, 50-minute cell phone exposure was associated with 
increased brain glucose metabolism in the region closest to the antenna." http://jama.ama-assn.org/content/305/8/808.short
Cell Phone Radiofrequency Radiation Exposure and Brain Glucose Metabolism
"the results point to a conclusion that cell phone use can possibly affect 
brain function, and specific effects may depend on the regions of the brain affected." http://citizensforsafetechnology.org/uploads/scribd/JAMA-2011-Lai-828-9.pdf
Biological Effects of Mobile Phone Electromagnetic Field on Chick Embryo (risk assessment using the mortality rate)
"Chicken embryos were exposed to EMF from GSM mobile phone during the embryonic development (21 days). As a result the 
embryo mortality rate in the incubation period increased to 75% (versus 16% in control group)."http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14658287

Tumour risk associated with use of cellular phones or cordless telephones - World Journal of Surgical Oncology 2006
We found for all studied phone types an increased risk for brain tumours, mainly acoustic neuroma and malignant brain tumours. OR increased with latency period, especially for astrocytoma grade III-IV. 

Lethal And Teratogenic Effects Of Long-Term Low-Intensity Radio Frequency Radiation At 428 Mhz On Developing Chick Embryo
"...for more than 20 days resulted in 
embryolethal and/or teratogenic effects and delayed hatching. These adverse biological effects were not due to any thermal effect of the RF radiation. We have demonstrated teratogenicity in the chick embryo as a result of protracted low-dose RF irradiation." http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/tera.1420430616/abstract "Almost one fourth of dead embryos in the radio frequency group occured within 10 days after incubation and the rest was due to death within the eggshell following inability to hatch... A functional abnormality consisting of creeping movement and inability to stand was found in 89% of exposed embryos, but not in the control group. "http://www.emf-portal.de/viewer.php?aid=2803&sid=aa7d205836c733391828675f0d64d4ae&sform=6&pag_idx=130&l=e 

Public health impact of electromagnetic radiation
Journal of the Royal Institute of Public Health, Public Health (2008)
Considering the potential long-term danger, physicians and public health officials should alert individual patients and the public to this issue and provide ongoing
information on precautions to diminish potential risk associated with EMF exposure.”
Setting Prudent Public Health Policy for Electromagnetic Field Exposures
Electromagnetic fields and DNA damage- Pathophysiology 2009
Wireless Radiation in the Etiology and Treatment of Autism: Clinical Observations and Mechanisms - J. Aust. Coll. Nutr. & Env. Med. 2007 

Cell Phone Radiation on Human Sperm
University of California, Berkeley 2011
Eight of the nine original studies reported adverse effects...”  

Environmental Medicine- Electromagnetic Fields- Austrian Medical Association 2007
Children and adolescents should use cordless and mobile phones, if at all, in emergencies onlyhttp://www.weepinitiative.org/LINKEDDOCS/scientific/elektrosmog-environmental-medicine-evaluation-2007.pdf
Electromagnetic fields on cells- Department - Biochemical and Biophysical Research
We have shown that this coherent vibration of electric charge is able to irregularly gate electrosensitive channels on the plasma membrane and thus cause disruption of the cell;s electrochemical balance and function.”

Brain-tumour risk in mobile-phone
Occupational and Environmental Medicine 2011


American Academy of Pediatrics, 2005
Concerns about the potential vulnerability of children to radio frequency (RF) fields have been raised because of the potentially greater susceptibility of their developing nervous systems;
in addition, their brain tissue is more conductive, RF penetration is greater relative to head size, and they will have a longer lifetime of exposure than adults.

Pathophysiology of cell phone radiation- Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology 2009
Mutagenic response of 2.45 GHz radiation- International Journal Radiation Biology
Pulsed 2.4 GHz Radiation - Biological Effects 2002
Effects of Cell Phone - Brain Glucose Metabolism-American Medical Association, 2011
Effects from cellular phones on human ejaculated semen- Reproductive Medicine, 2009
Tumour risk associated with use of cellular phones or cordless telephones - World Journal of Surgical Oncology 2006http://www.wjso.com/content/4/1/74

Public health impact of electromagnetic radiation Journal of the Royal Institute of Public Health, Public Health 2008, http://www.avaate.org/IMG/pdf/Public_Health_-_EMF.pdf
Setting Prudent Public Health Policy for Electromagnetic Field Exposures http://www.bcuc.com/Documents/Proceedings/2010/DOC_24467_C3-14_McMurtry_Evidence_Prudent-Health-EMF.pdf
Electromagnetic fields and DNA damage- Pathophysiology 2009 http://www.mreengenharia.com.br/pathfisology/Pathophysiology_2009_H_Lai.pdf

The Effects of Microwave emitted by Cellular Phones on Ovarian Follicles in Rats 
...the number of follicles was lower than that in the control group. The decreased number of follicles in pups exposed to mobile phone microwaves suggest that intrauterine expo- sure has toxic effects on ovaries. Conclusion: We suggest that the microwaves of mobile phones might decrease the number of follicles in rats by several known and, no doubt, countless unknown mechanisms. “

Report on Cell Tower Radiation
Department of Telecommunication, Delhi, India
Prepared by Prof. Girish Kumar gkumar@ee.iitb.ac
Electrical Engineering Department IIT Bombay, Powai, Mumai – 400 076 - December 2010
"Let's do some simple calculation of how much microwave power will be absorbed by human body if exposed to the so called safe radiation level adopted in India of power density = 4.7W/m2 for GSM900 band,. If we model human body as a cylinder, then its area will be 1.436square meter (average height 5'6" = 1.67 m and waist 34" = 86 cm). So, power recd. by human body will be power density x area = 6.75 Watts. In one hour, microwave energy absorbed will be6.75 x 3600 = 24.3 KW-sec. In one day, microwave energy absorbed will be 24.3 x 24 = 583.2KW-sec. A typical microwave oven has a rating of 700 to 1000 W, and with say 60% efficiency,microwave power output is approximately 500 W. This implies that human body can be safely kept in a microwave oven for 583.2 KW-sec / 500 W = 1166 seconds = 19 minutes per day. How many people in the world are willing to put themselves, their family members, and their unborn children in an open microwave oven for 19 minutes/day? Telecom providers or policy maker scan argue about body being adaptable to external threats and the radiation is spread over whole day. However, question remains, would we like to put our citizens in an open microwave oven for 19 minutes/day over the years. Also, this is only for a single source. For multiple sources, it will increase correspondingly. Thus, the safe limit adopted by India is extremely high and millions of people are suffering because of this."
(Note: Canadian standard is 10W/m2 which is more than twice the exposure limit of India.)

Conclusion: "The seriousness of the health hazards due to radiation from the cell phones and cell towers has not been realized among the common man. Cell operators continue to claim that there are no health issues. Even organizations like WHO, ICNIRP, FCC, etc. have not recommended stricter safe radiation guidelines, whereas several countries have adopted radiation norms, which are 1/100th to 1/1000th of these values based on their studies. Cell phone industry is becoming another cigarette industry, which kept claiming that smoking is not harmful and now there are millions of people around the world who have suffered from smoking. In fact, cell phone/tower radiation is worse than smoking; as one cannot see it or smell it, and its effect on health is noted after a long period of exposure.... Unfortunately, ignorance and non-awareness adds to this misery and all of us are absorbing this slow poison unknowingly. Even if people are aware of the radiation hazard, they may not have the choice to move away from it if the tower is installed near their office or residential building. In addition to the continuous radiation from cell towers, there is radiation from cell phones, wireless phones, computers, laptops, TV towers, FM towers, AM towers, microwave ovens, etc. We are exposed to all these radiations which are additive in nature. Hence, it is imperative that stricter radiation norms must be enforced by the policy makers... If people in the mobile companies think there is no health hazard, then let them stand in front of their own transmitting tower at 1m distance in the main beam for 6 hours – are they willing to take the risk? Similar effect will be there at 10m distance in about 600 hours (25 days). If mobile companies accept that radiation causes serious health problems... then researchers/technocrats/entrepreneurs will come out with possible solutions, which may be expensive but that cannot be greater than the health risk faced by humans, birds, animals and environment."

Cell phone use and behavioural problems in young children.
The results showed positive associations between cell phone use and behavourial problems in young children. The highest odds ratios for behavioural problems were for children who had both prenatal and postnatal exposure to cell phones compared with children not exposed during either time period (OR 1.5, CI 1.4-1.7).
The findings of the previous study by Divan et al (2008) were replicated in a separate group of participants demonstrating that cell phone use was associated with behavioural problems at the age of 7 years in children

Exposure to radio-frequency electromagnetic fields and behavioural problems in Bavarian children and adolescents.

An analysis of the behaviour subgroups showed an association between the highest exposure group and conduct problems for adolescents and for children.

Analyzing the Health Impacts of Modern Telecommunications Microwaves.
"In the present study we showed that microwave radiations used in modern mobile telecommunications can damage DNA and induce cell death or heritable mutations which may in turn result in reproduction decreases, degenerative deceases, or cancer

Non-Thermal Effects And Mechanisms Of Interaction Between Electromagnetic Fields And Living Matter
National Institute for the Study and Control of Cancer and Environmental Diseases “Bernardino Ramazzini” Bologna, Italy 2010

2011 International Association of Fire Fighters' Position on the Health Effects from Radio Frequency/Microwave (RF/MW) Radiation in Fire Department Facilities
There are established biological effects from exposure to low-level RF/MW radiation. Such biological effects are recognized as markers of adverse health effects when they arise from exposure to toxic chemicals...”

The Bioinitiative Report
Review of over 2,000 scientific studies on electromagnetic fields, by independent (non-industry-funded) scientists.

Cell phones and brain tumors: a review including the
long-term epidemiologic data
The results indicate that using a cell phone for 10 years approximately doubles the risk of being diagnosed with a brain tumor on the same (“ipsilateral”) side of the head as that preferred for cell phone use. The data achieve statistical significance for glioma and acoustic neuroma...”

Electromagnetism & Life.
Soviet investigators reported that electromagnetic energy could affect the central nervous, cardiovascular, and endocrine systems... led to the adoption of a 10μW rule for the workplace and a 1μW rule for the general environment... The evidence now shows, overwhelmingly, that the Soviet approach was the correct one... Man-made EMFs are present in the environment at levels shown by experiment to be capable of affecting biological function. It follows, therefore, that uncontrolled exposure to such EMFs is a potential public health risk. The regulatory response to the environmental EMF problem has been slow, and the nature of the proof demanded has frequently been inappropriate.”

Effects of Laptop Computers' Electromagnetic Field on Sperm Quality
...magnetic fields induced by laptop computers may decrease sperm count and sperm motility, ultimately affecting male reproductive capabilities. It is advisable to limit the time these devices are used in a laptop position."

Fetal Radiofrequency Radiation Exposure From 800-1900 Mhz-Rated Cellular Telephones Affects Neurodevelopment and Behavior in Mice
Here we demonstrate that fetal exposure to 800–1900 Mhz-rated radiofrequency radiation from cellular telephones leads to behavioral and neurophysiological alterations that persist into adulthood...The significant trend between the groups treated for 0, 9, 15, and 24 hours/day demonstrates that the effects are directly proportional to usage time... 
Exposure to Electromagnetic Fields From Laptop Use of “Laptop” Computers
In the LTCs analyzed, EMF values (range 1.8–6
μT) are within International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation (NIR) Protection (ICNIRP) guidelines, but are considerably higher than the values recommended by 2 recent guidelines for computer monitors magnetic field emissions, MPR II (Swedish Board for Technical Accreditation)
and TCO (Swedish Confederation of Professional Employees), and those considered risky for tumor development... the power supply induces strong intracorporal electric current densities in the fetus and in the adult subject, which are respectively 182–263% and 71–483% higher than ICNIRP 98 basic restriction recommended to prevent adverse health effects.

Electromagnetic hypersensitivity: Fact or fiction?
Recent evidence in the scientific literature suggests that various objective physiological alterations are apparent in some EHS persons claiming to suffer after exposure to certain frequencies of EMR (McCarty et al., 2011; Havas et al., 2010). As a result, many scientists now recognize that hypersensitivity to EMR can be a debilitating medical condition that is affecting increasing numbers of people throughout the world.

Psychophysiological Indicators for Child Users of Mobile Communication. Message 1: Present State of the Problem
Message 2: Results of Four-year Monitoring
"It has been shown that the children’s organism is more sensitive to this kind of exposure than the adult one. We have identified the following major trends of the psychophysiological indicators for child users of mobile communication: an increased number of phonemic perception disorders, abatement of efficiency, reduced indicators for the arbitrary and semantic memory, and increased fatigue. A steady decline of the parameters from high values to bottom standards has been found."

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