USA - Yale University
Fetal Radiofrequency Radiation Exposure From 800-1900 Mhz-Rated Cellular Telephones Affects Neurodevelopment and Behavior in Mice
Dept of Pediatrics, Obstetrics and Reproduction Medicine, University of Siena.
ASL 7 (Local Health Agency), Prevention Dept Physical Agents Laboratory, Siena.
CNR (Italian Research Council), Institute of Applied Physics (IFAC), Florence, Italy.
Exposure to Electromagnetic Fields From Laptop Use of “Laptop” Computers
Exposure to Electromagnetic Fields From Laptop Use of “Laptop” Computers
“In the LTCs analyzed, EMF values (range 1.8–6 μT) are within International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation (NIR) Protection (ICNIRP) guidelines, but are considerably higher than the values recommended by 2 recent guidelines for computer monitors magnetic field emissions, MPR II (Swedish Board for Technical Accreditation)
Russian National Committee on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection
Psychophysiological Indicators for Child Users of Mobile Communication. Message 1: Present State of the Problem
"It has been shown that the children’s organism is more sensitive to this kind of exposure than the adult one. We have identified the following major trends of the psychophysiological indicators for child users of mobile communication: an increased number of phonemic perception disorders, abatement of efficiency, reduced indicators for the arbitrary and semantic memory, and increased fatigue. A steady decline of the parameters from high values to bottom standards has been found."
Wireless Radiation Damages Fertility
Some Peer-reviewed Studies on the Biological Effects from 2.45Ghz (Wi-Fi range) Radiofrequency
"We have demonstrated that exposure to laptops decrease progressive motility and induce DNA fragmentation in human spermatozoa in vitro by a non-thermal effect. We speculate that keeping the laptops (WiFi mode) on the lap near the testes may result in decreased male fertility."
The Microwave Syndrome - Further aspects of a Spanish Study.
“All across Europe the debate on exposure limits has flared up; insurance companies do not insure cell phone providers because of the incalculable health risks...the results of the report confirm long-known health risks associated with cell phone technologies... These recommendations are especially important for children. Dear parents, talk with your children about them!” This is now about the conflict between commercial interests of an industry supported by the government and the protection of public health. The BUND warns: “The ubiquitous exposure to this unnatural type of radiation at unprecedented levels of power density harms human health. Short-term and long-term health impairments are preprogrammed and will especially manifest in the next generation if politically responsible actions are not taken immediately... Impacts on the Brain...EEG changes...already set in during the first five minutes of exposure and remained unchanged for over 50 minutes thereafter... exposure causes a notable change in protein synthesis profiles... At a SAR of 2 W/kg, the demonstrated effects are reproducible and statistically highly significant, but they start to show at SAR levels as low as 0.1 W/kg ...the protein synthesis is measurable 4 hours after the exposure starts... The increased rate of synthesis returns to normal levels within 2 hours of when exposure stops... It appears that cells do notice that some proteins lose their function and that this loss of function, therefore, must be compensated for by the synthesis of new proteins... In addition, electromagnetic exposures provoke the formation of the free radical nitric oxide, resulting in an increased rate of DNA damage... such a break is a genetic disaster for the cell because it can hardly be reconciled with the survival of the cell. The cell therefore, tries to make repairs. When doing repairs, the cell indeed survives, but at the price of errors, so-called mutations, creeping in. And these mutations are lasting changes, which, in turn, also bear the risk of cancer... One of the observations showed that, among the different cells, those respond particularly strongly, which are metabolically active. This cell property is especially pronounced in growing tissues that is, in children and youth. Consequently, these population groups would be more susceptible than average to the described effects.”
“The ICNIRP (standard which Health Canada follows) concedes that exposure limits only protect from “short-term, acute health impacts caused by increased temperatures in tissue and that nonthermal biological effects are not taken into account.”
Environmental Pollution on Microwave Radiation - A Potential Threat to Human Health
A 1973 Canadian Research Report
"In view of the expected proliferation of MW devices in many different applications, a substantial increase in MW background activity is feared that may endanger human health. On this basis strict control of the use of these devices must be introduced while present safety standards are revised and extensive research is conducted into long term effects of exposure to low intensity MW radiation. In particular, a study of possible accumulative effects of MW radiation (directly or indirectly) through sensitization must be conducted . "
This 1971 report referenced more than 2300 research articles listing more than 120 illnesses caused by radio frequency and microwave radiation including damage to the thyroid, blood, reproductive organs, heart and brain in addition to cell mutations.
“Health endpoints reported to be associated with ELF and/or RF include childhood leukaemia, brain tumours, genotoxic effects, neurological effects and neurodegenerative diseases, immune system deregulation, allergic and inflammatory responses, breast cancer, miscarriage and some cardiovascular effects.”http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18242044
Magnetic-field-induced DNA strand breaks in brain cells of the rat.
“Acute magnetic field exposure increased apoptosis and necrosis of brain cells in the rat.”http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1241963/
“An increase in both types of DNA strand breaks was observed after exposure to either the pulsed or continuous-wave radiation”http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8627134
Blood-brain barrier permeability and nerve cell damage in rat brain 14 and 28 days after exposure to microwaves from GSM mobile phones.
“Albumin extravazation and also its uptake into neurons was seen to be enhanced after 14 d (Kruskal Wallis test: p = 0.02 and 0.002, respectively)... The occurrence of dark neurons in the rat brains... was enhanced later, after 28 d (p = 0.02). Furthermore, in the 28-d brain samples, neuronal albumin uptake was significantly correlated to occurrence of damaged neurons (Spearman r = 0.41; p < 0.01).”http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18821198
Nerve cell damage in mammalian brain after exposure to microwaves from GSM mobile phones.
“We found highly significant (p< 0.002) evidence for neuronal damage in the cortex, hippocampus, and basal ganglia in the brains of exposed rats.”http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1241519/?tool=pubmed
Increased blood-brain barrier permeability in mammalian brain 7 days after exposure to the radiation from a GSM-900 mobile phone.
“The present findings are in agreement with our earlier studies where we have seen increased BBB permeability immediately and 14 days after exposure.”http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19345073
Volume 583, Issue 2, 6 June 2005, Pages 178-183
“we conclude that the induced DNA damage cannot be based on thermal effects.”http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15869902
Martin Blank, Reba Goodman,
Department of Physiology, Columbia University, New York, NY, USA
“While low energy EMF interacts with DNA to induce the stress response, increasing EMF energy in the RF range can lead to breaks in DNA strands. It is clear that in order to protect living cells, EMF safety limits must be changed from the current thermal standard, based on energy, to one based on biological responses that occur long before the threshold for thermal changes.”http://www.pathophysiologyjournal.com/article/S0928-4680%2809%2900006-6/abstract
Neil Cherry, Environmental Health, Lincoln University, New Zealand
“Many studies, from independent laboratories, have shown that ELF, RF/MW and cell phone radiation, significantly increases chromosome aberrations in exposed cells, including cells taken from human beings who have been exposed to EMR in occupational situations. Even at very low intensity radar exposures that were experienced at the U.S. Embassy in Moscow, significant increases in chromosome damage was measured from human blood samples. This evidence shows conclusively that across the EMR spectrum, EMR is genotoxic. Hence it is carcinogenic and teratogenic.”http://www.neilcherry.com/documents.php#rf
Public Health Implications of Wireless Technologies
“Existing safety standards are obsolete because they are based solely on thermal effects from acute exposures. The rapidly expanding development of new wireless technologies and the long latency for the development of such serious diseases as brain cancers means that failure to take immediate action to reduce risks may result in an epidemic of potentially fatal diseases in the future.”http://www.pathophysiologyjournal.com/article/S0928-4680(09)00017-0/abstract
“Taking altogether there is ample evidence that RF-EMF can alter the genetic material of exposed cells in vivo and in vitro and in more than one way.”http://www.pathophysiologyjournal.com/article/S0928-4680(09)00016-9/abstract
“Our results suggest significantly reduced memory functions in rats after GSM microwave exposure (P = 0.02).”http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18044737
“Given the degree of uncertainty as to whether exposure levels below those permitted by Safety Code 6 could result in adverse health effects, Toronto Public Health supports the implementation of a prudent avoidance policy. Such a policy encourages the adoption of individual or societal actions to avoid unnecessary exposures to radio frequencies that entail little or no cost.” http://www.toronto.ca/health/hphe/pdf/rf_boh_final.pdf
"The authors concluded that the electromagnetic field exposure of medical staff in physiotherapy could be associated with adverse effects on the cardiovascular system."http://www.emf-portal.de/viewer.php?aid=15833&sid=6f336c7ba112baee42d94bd8c34170ac&sform=6&pag_idx=80&l=e
"The findings suggest that in exposed animals, carcinogenesis may be induced earlier and with different pathological forms than in control mice."http://www.emf-portal.de/viewer.php?aid=12248&sid=f980ebaeb7b9ce8a9a0c808d6d414550&sform=6&pag_idx=30&l=e
"The authors conclude that low energy microwave irradiation may be harmful as it is sufficient to alter the levels of thyroid hormones as well as the emotional reactivity of rats."http://www.emf-portal.de/viewer.php?aid=16182&sid=066e46c73a86b30f2c00fed54467f5f4&sform=6&pag_idx=0&l=e
“The number of pups per delivery was significantly decreased in the exposure group compared to the control group. The data showed that in the pups of the exposed group, the number of follicles was significantly lower than that in the control group. The decreased number of follicles in pups exposed to mobile phone microwaves suggest that intrauterine exposure has toxic effects on ovaries.“
"The data showed that exposure to mobile phones for 60 minutes/day for the total period of 3 months significantly decreased the serum testosterone level in rats compared to the control group. Testosterone is a primary male gender hormone and any change in the normal levels may be devastating for reproductive and general health."http://www.emf-portal.de/viewer.php?aid=18557&sid=066e46c73a86b30f2c00fed54467f5f4&sform=6&pag_idx=0&l=e
"The ammonia concentration was found about 5 times higher in animals exposed to 0.4 s than in non or longer exposed animals."http://www.emf-portal.de/viewer.php?aid=4971&sid=032f7707821b85619c2ea16bf9441d34&sform=6&pag_idx=60&l=e
"A progressive decrease in the number of newborns per dam was found, which ended in irreversible infertility."
Hallberg Ö, Johansson O, Arch Environ Health 2002; 57: 32‐40http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12071358
Cancer trends during the 20th century
"Breast, bladder, prostate, lung, colon and cutaneous melanoma cancers are all associated with each other. Figures 15-17 and ref. 11 relate melanoma to radio-frequency EMF."
"...closing down of public radio transmitters seems to have a strong effect in reducing cancer mortality..."
Hallberg Ö, Johansson O, J Aust Coll Nutr & Env Med 2002; 21: 3‐8 http://www.icems.eu/docs/Johansson.pdf
"We conclude that continuous disturbance of cell repair mechanisms by body-resonant electromagnetic fields seems to amplify the carcinogenic effects resulting from cell damage caused e.g. by UV-radiation."
Hallberg Ö, Johansson O, Med Sci Monit 2004; 10: CR336‐340http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15232509
Electro hypersensitivity: Observations in the human skin of a physical impairment
"In summary, it is evident from our preliminary data that various biological alterations are present in the electrohypersensitive persons claiming to suffer from exposure of electromagnetic fields."
Johansson O, Symposium on ‘Electrical Sensitivity in Human Beings’, Royal Society of Medicine, London, U.K., September 11, 2004 (abstr.)http://www.icems.eu/docs/Johansson.pdf
Does GSM 1800 MHz affect the public health in Sweden?
"The responsible authorities must seriously consider possible health implications from the GSM 1800 MHz system"
Hallberg Ö, Johansson O, , In: Proceedings of the 3rd International Workshop ‘Biological Effects of EMFs’, Kos, Greece, October 4‐8, 2004 Johansson O, ‘Electro hypersensitivity: Observations in the human skin of a physical impairment’, WHO Workshop on ‘Electrical Hypersensitivity’, Prague, Czech Republic, October 25‐27, 2004 (abstr.) 1997 – A curious year in Sweden
Hallberg Ö, Johansson O,, Eur J Cancer Prev 2004; 13: 535‐538
"We note that 1997 was a very curious year in that a large number of health-reltaed measures suddenly started to indicate a fast degradation in the health of the Swedish population. Several health characteristics and diseases seem to correlate with the Swedish introduction of the GSM 1800MHz system both in time and place."
"...strong similarity between increased mobile phone use and health degradation in Sweden. Other investigations have shown a strong correlation between mobile system transmitter coverage and health including recovery times from accidents and surgery operations. All in all we can only conclude that it is now time to reconsider the benefit of handheld radiating devices, nowadays being marketed also towards innocent children. ... health care expenses likely to be caused by mobile phone and transmitter radiation."
Hallberg Ö, Johansson O, J Aust Coll Nutr & Env Med, 2004; 23: 11‐12 http://www.iddd.de/umtsno/lthhallberg.pdf
Mobile handset output power and health
Hallberg Ö, Johansson O, Electromag Biol Med 2004; 23: 229‐239
FM broadcasting exposure time and malignant melanoma incidence
"Malignant melanoma is an example of a disease that was very rare before 1955 but has increased dramatically over the past 50 years. This increase may be due to an environmental agent which interferes with cell repair mechanisms normally active during sleep. We have shown that an environmental change of this type might be the exposure of a population to whole-body resonant EMFs via FM broadcasting transmitters. In Sweden FM broadcasting started in 1955 and had increased considerably by 1957."
Hallberg Ö, Johansson O, , Electromag Biol Med 2005; 24: 1‐8
"The two factors having the strongest correlation with decreased health quality were the estimated average power output from mobile phones (positive correlation) and the reported coverage from the global system for mobile communication base stations (negative correlation) in each county."
Hallberg Ö, Johansson O, Europ Biol Bioelectromag 2005, in press
- A potentially underlying cause for cellular damage and tissue repair reduction which could lead to disease and impairment "A number of papers dealing with the effects of modern, man-made electromagnetic fields (EMFs) on the immune system are summarized in the present review. EMFs disturb immune function through stimulation of various allergic and inflammatory responses, as well as effects on tissue repair processes. Such disturbances increase the risks for various diseases, including cancer. These and the EMF effects on other biological processes (e.g. DNA damage, neurological effects, etc.) are now widely reported to occur at exposure levels significantly below most current national and international safety limits. Obviously, biologically based exposure standards are needed to prevent disruption of normal body processes and potential adverse health effects of chronic exposure." http://www.emrnetwork.org/pdfs/PATPHY_621.pdf
"the results of this study show the stimulative effect of power-frequency EMF on thyroid gland at both the light microscope and the ultrastructural level."http://jeb.biologists.org/cgi/reprint/209/17/3322.pdf
Cell Membrane and Electromagnetic Fields
"Electromagnetic field can affect the protein distribution pattern and the proliferation rate of different kind of cells. Protein clusterization may induce a changement in cell permeability control. The evidence of Biological effects are so strong that the icnirp guidelines are to be modified to lower epidemiological limits. Public exposure Limit - To avoid the demonstrated health effects the public, exposure limit should be 0.02 mW/cm2."http://www.salzburg.gv.at/Proceedings_%2813%29_Marinelli.pdf
(Based on large-scale human studies of 1312 workers and 1859 students in China)
"In summary, the results showed that chronic exposure to EMFs are associated with a variety of non-specific symptoms, including increased frequency of neuroses, liability of vegetation nervous system, and slight changes in peripheral blood, lens, and non-specific immune function... The health hazard develops after overpassing of the adaptation/defense processes of the subjects. However, the existence of health hazardous effects of RF (radiofrequency) and MW (microwave) could not be denied."http://www.salzburg.gv.at/Proceedings_%2820%29_Chiang.pdf
CAO Zhaojin - National Institute for Environmental Health and Related Product Safety, China 2006
"Epidemiological studies showed that low intensity RF exposure (lower than EMF standard, <10μW/cm2) [Note: Current Canadian standard is 1000μW/cm2!] might have effects on human neurobehavior, neurasthenia, cataract, and sperm development; low intensity RF might result in abnormal of ECG, EEG, and rCBF, and low intensity RF might increase the rate of mutation and micro nuclei in lymphocytes.
Animal studies showed that RF might have effects on animal ability of study, memory and male reproduction; RF might disturb the elimination ability of free radicals and the regulating ability of brain neurotransmitters. In vitro studies found that RF might down regulate the cytochrome oxidase activity of neurons and might damage the retention of brain, it implies that RF might have some relation with Alzheimer’s dementia."http://www.icems.eu/docs/Cao.pdf
C V Bellieni, M Acampa, M Maffei, S Maffei, S Perrone, I Pinto, N Stacchini, G Buonocore
"In healthy participants and compared with no exposure, 50-minute cell phone exposure was associated with increased brain glucose metabolism in the region closest to the antenna." http://jama.ama-assn.org/content/305/8/808.short
"the results point to a conclusion that cell phone use can possibly affect brain function, and specific effects may depend on the regions of the brain affected." http://citizensforsafetechnology.org/uploads/scribd/JAMA-2011-Lai-828-9.pdf
"Chicken embryos were exposed to EMF from GSM mobile phone during the embryonic development (21 days). As a result the embryo mortality rate in the incubation period increased to 75% (versus 16% in control group)."http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14658287
"...for more than 20 days resulted in embryolethal and/or teratogenic effects and delayed hatching. These adverse biological effects were not due to any thermal effect of the RF radiation. We have demonstrated teratogenicity in the chick embryo as a result of protracted low-dose RF irradiation." http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/tera.1420430616/abstract "Almost one fourth of dead embryos in the radio frequency group occured within 10 days after incubation and the rest was due to death within the eggshell following inability to hatch... A functional abnormality consisting of creeping movement and inability to stand was found in 89% of exposed embryos, but not in the control group. "http://www.emf-portal.de/viewer.php?aid=2803&sid=aa7d205836c733391828675f0d64d4ae&sform=6&pag_idx=130&l=e
Journal of the Royal Institute of Public Health, Public Health (2008)
University of California, Berkeley 2011
“Eight of the nine original studies reported adverse effects...”
Environmental Medicine- Electromagnetic Fields- Austrian Medical Association 2007
Occupational and Environmental Medicine 2011
The findings of the previous study by Divan et al (2008) were replicated in a separate group of participants demonstrating that cell phone use was associated with behavioural problems at the age of 7 years in children. ”
Exposure to radio-frequency electromagnetic fields and behavioural problems in Bavarian children and adolescents.
Cell phones and brain tumors: a review including the
http://www.nature.com/srep/2012/120315/srep00312/full/srep00312.htmlExposure to Electromagnetic Fields From Laptop Use of “Laptop” Computers
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